I've already discussed what web applications are and how they functioning.
Now you just need to know that web applications rely on two-way exchange of messages between servers and their clients over the Internet. This is the basis of the operation of web applications. The transferred data is part of the message and is transmitted step by step over the network. I am not going to describe the technique of transferring data on the Internet - it is a very complex topic. All you need to know is that streams of bytes flow across the Internet between servers and their clients.
I remind you that in a binary system, one byte is an 8-bit number. One byte in decimal system is a number in the range 0 - 255. In hex representation that is 0x00 - 0xFF.
In summary, the data in client requests and the data returned by servers are sequences of bytes. Both server and client applications must be able to interpret these byte sequences. The data must therefore be sent in an appropriate format understandable by servers and clients.
I often use the HTTP protocol here. Generally speaking, any type of data can be sent using HTTP as long as both the client and the server know how to interpret the data being sent.
Basically, the following types of resources are transferred via HTTP:
• Text format (text strings),
• ArrayBuffer (fixed-length binary data buffer),
• BLOB (Binary Large OBject),
• FormData (data sets in the form of key-value pairs).
These data types are also used in other communication protocols, e.g. in the WebSocket protocol.
The simplest form of data transfer in the internet is text.
The ArrayBuffer is a data type that is useful to represent a fixed-length binary data buffer.
The BLOB is a file-like object of immutable raw data. The BLOB content can be be read as text or binary data.
• Binary data
JSON is a very common syntax for storing and exchanging data.
The Base64 is a method of transferring any type of data in text format.
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